Contact your local county Extension office through our County Office List.

Close Icon

For more information or support with FSMA, call 970-491-2942 or email us.

Wildlife and Domesticated Animals   arrow

Wildlife and Domesticated Animals on the Farm

The FSMA Produce Safety Rule requires monitoring wildlife and domesticated animals in areas where they may pose a risk of contamination to covered produce and, if significant evidence of potential contamination is found, not harvesting any produce that may be contaminated.

What are wild animals?

Wild animals are those animals living in a state of nature and not ordinarily tamed or domesticated. Feral animals are those that have escaped from domestication and become wild.

What are domesticated animals?

Domesticated animal include working animals (such as draft animals for field operations and transportation); guard animals used to deter pests and predators; and service animals and pets.

Wildlife Management and Damage Mitigation

General Resources
Species-specific Management Strategies and Information
Co-Management: Balancing Food Safety and Sustainability
Issues with Wildlife?

General Resources

Growers need to understand state and federal laws governing management and control of wildlife and their impact on produce growing and handling areas.

Colorado Nuisance Wildlife Laws: Summaries of Colorado’s most common regulations and statutes pertaining to nuisance wildlife questions.


Endangered Species (search the map) Search the database for endangered species and their habitats. Note that the Produce Safety Rule does not authorize the taking of any threatened or endangered species, defined under the Endangered Species Act.

Wildlife Damage Management: Information on damage identification and abatement using habitat modification, frightening devices and biological, repellent and auditory, visual and other techniques to reduce food safety risks presented by birds and mammals (USDA-APHIS-Wildlife Services).

Game Damage Program, Colorado Parks & Wildlife: Resources to prevent and identify crop damage from big game species.

Internet Center for Wildlife Damage Management Research-based information on identifying damage and control methods for each species.

Species-specific Management Strategies and Information


Geese, Ducks, and Coots Sandhill and Whooping Cranes

European Starlings

Controlling Birds Around Farm Buildings

Bird Dispersal Techniques

Migratory Bird Depredation Permit

Coyotes, Carnivores

Other Mammals

Reptiles, Amphibians



Fencing With Wildlife in Mind

Rodent-Proof Construction and Exclusion

Pest Management Systems to Control Rodents in and around Packing Sheds

Wildlife Control Training Program

Grower Self-Assessment of Food Safety Risks from Wildlife (Cornell University)

Control Methods for Wildlife Damage Management



Wildlife Management Publications/References


Co-Management: Balancing Food Safety and Sustainability

Balancing food safety and sustainability goals is a vital goal of produce industry management. Under the Produce Safety Rule, co-management is encouraged but not required. On their farms, growers are active stewards of the land, protecting soil and water quality as well as supporting wildlife populations by preserving their habitat. At the same time, they must ensure that their crops are free from contamination that can cause foodborne illnesses. Use the resources below to learn more about co-management.


Issues with Wildlife?

If you are experiencing any issues with wildlife, or if you have any questions about wildlife management in areas where it may contact produce, please use the following contacts at Colorado Parks and Wildlife (CPW) based on your location:

     Northeast Region:  303-291-7227

     Northwest Region: 970-255-6100

     Southeast Region: 719-227-5200

     Southwest Region: 970-247-0855